carvacrol and thymol

In contrast, irradiated ovaries showed a marked reduction in the immune reaction of the secondary follicles of granulosa cells (arrowheads) and very weak immune positivity (arrows) in the nuclei of their degenerated oocytes except for radiation-resistant late-antral follicles which stained positive. Standard diet pellets contained not less than 20% protein, 5% fiber, 3.5% fat, 6.5% ash, and a vitamin mixture according to the standard guidelines. All rights reserved. Fan, Y. H. Li, G. J. Bagby, and C. H. Lang, “Modulation of inflammation-induced changes in insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and IGF binding protein-1 by anti-TNF antibody,”. SARS-CoV-2 is the primary causative agent of the newly emerged pandemic. Two days post irradiation, six rats in each group were utilized for biological assessment and three rats in each group were utilized for histopathology and immunohistochemistry studies. This study revealed that the EO's and EOC's (carvacrol and thymol) investigated showed inhibition of biofilm formation at sub-minimum inhibitory concentration. It is known that CAR possesses an extensive variety of pharmacological properties including antioxidant and antimicrobial activities [23] and chemopreventive effects in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced colon cancer [24]. In order to complete our assessment of the cross-talk between TNF-α and IGF-1 levels, ovarian TNF-α and serum IGF-1 were determined calorimetrically. For different groups, atretic follicles undergoing atresia were negative for PCNA as previously reported [42]. Atretic follicles were identified due to the presence of degenerating oocyte or pyknotic granulosa cells [37]. [45] have documented the radioprotective effect of CAR against X-radiation in cultured human blood lymphocytes. Accordingly, it was interesting to assess the serum IGF-1 levels of different treatment groups and it was found that there was a significant reduction in the serum IGF-1 level two days post irradiation; this could be reversed with the administration of CAR and thymol. Two days post irradiation, six rats in each group were utilized for biological assessment and three rats in each group were utilized for histopathology and immunohistochemistry studies. This cross-talk could control the inflammatory processes as well as the decision concerning apoptosis or cell survival [63]. 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Finally, this study is the first to explore the effect of CAR/thymol on the cross-talk between TNF-α and IGF-1 in radiotherapy-induced ovarian damage. After fixation, specimens were dehydrated in an ascending series of alcohols, cleared in two changes of xylene and embedded in molten paraffin. In this context, radiotherapy has an array of serious effects on ovarian functions [3], such as the depletion of the nonrenewable primordial follicle reserve [10]. To provide an accurate assessment of the follicular reserve as related to functional maturation of the ovary, serum AMH was assayed during the prepubertal period using the AMH ELISA Kit (Uscn Life Science Inc., Wuhan). A previous study reported that S. khuzestanica essential oil (SKEO), in which CAR is one of the main constituents, significantly increased the E2 levels in busulfan-induced ovarian failure [47]. Please enable Cookies and reload the page. As shown in Table 1, radiation caused a significant depletion of the antioxidant activity reaching about 87% of the control group. For negative control sections, the same procedure was followed but with the omission of incubation with the primary antibodies. Exposure to ionizing radiation produces oxygen-derived free radicals and activates pathways that lead to follicular death, such as inflammatory and apoptotic pathways [12]. Recently, Abedi et al. B. Abdel-Naim, “Growth hormone ameliorates the radiotherapy-induced ovarian follicular loss in rats: impact on oxidative stress, apoptosis and IGF-1/IGF-1R axis,”, H. Kim, K. Yamanouchi, and M. Nishihara, “Expression of ski in the granulosa cells of atretic follicles in the rat ovary,”, M. Sonmezer and K. Oktay, “Fertility preservation in young women undergoing breast cancer therapy,”, A. Imai, S. Ichigo, K. Matsunami, H. Takagi, and I. Kawabata, “Ovarian function following targeted anti-angiogenic therapy with bevacizumab,”, S. S. Han, Y. H. Kim, S. H. Lee et al., “Underuse of ovarian transposition in reproductive-aged cancer patients treated by primary or adjuvant pelvic irradiation,”, S. Arivalagan, N. S. Thomas, T. Kuppusamy, and N. Namashivayam, “Radioprotective effect of carvacrol against X-radiation-induced cellular damage in cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes,”, P. R. Archana, B. N. Rao, and B. S. S. Rao, “, A. Ahmadi, S. B. Chafjiri, and R. A. Sadrkhanlou, “Effect of, M. Krawczuk-Rybak, E. Leszczynska, M. Poznanska, B. Zelazowska-Rutkowska, and J. Wysocka, “Anti-müllerian hormone as a sensitive marker of ovarian function in young cancer survivors,”, T. Maruo, J. Ovaries were fixed in 10% neutral-buffered formalin. On the other hand, irradiated ovaries showed marked shrinkage of the ovary and most of the follicles are degenerated with degenerated oocytes (arrows) as shown in Figure 1(b). The results demonstrate the binding possibility of the natural compounds (Thymol, Carvacrol, Hesperidine, and Thymoquinone) to the viral main protease (Mpro). RE7280-K); the secondary antibody used was the biotinylated anti-mouse IgG (Novocastra). Eimeria spp. Sign up here as a reviewer to help fast-track new submissions. Die kristalline Substanz Thymol wurde 1719 von Kaspar Neumann entdeckt und … [31]. Rats were weighed daily until the day of sacrifice. Carvacrol and thymol, the main components of the essential oils of the Lamiaceae family of plants, were assessed in combination to evaluate their antioxidant activity and antimicrobial effect against 19 strains of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) of different origins (clinical, meat, milk, and other) and mostly (12) enterotoxin producers. Yasmen F. Mahran, Amira M. Badr, Alhanouf Aldosari, Raghad Bin-Zaid, Hind N. Alotaibi, "Carvacrol and Thymol Modulate the Cross-Talk between TNF-α and IGF-1 Signaling in Radiotherapy-Induced Ovarian Failure", Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, vol. The immunohistochemical analysis of PCNA [38] was carried out using a mouse anti-PCNA polyclonal-anti-mouse. The fifth cut was chosen to determine the antral follicular count (AFC) and to evaluate follicular development using a digital video camera mounted on a light microscope (DX 72, Olympus, Japan). Therefore, the need for an effective radioprotective therapy is evident especially when none of the current clinically used modalities for radioprotection succeeds efficiently. However, the ideal mitigation paradigm has not been discovered yet. However, no studies have been found to demonstrate or compare the protective effect of CAR and thymol in experimentally induced ovarian failure rats. Ovarian samples were homogenized at 1 : 10 ( : ) in the available KIT lysis buffer with an Ultra-Turrax Homogenizer. In addition, the relative ovary weight was significantly lowered by 0.48-fold as compared to the control group. Immature female rats were used at the age of 23 days (which was appropriate for this study) and were chosen according to previous studies. 2.4.6.1. The level of TNF-α was directly proportional to the color reaction and was expressed as pg/gm wet tissue. Accordingly, this study is the first to find that CAR is superior over thymol in its effect on the FSH level, while they have the same impact with regard to the E2 level. Besides morphometric analysis, immunohistochemical detection of the proliferation marker, PCNA, proved that follicles belonging to the same follicular pool were at different states of maturation in control and irradiated ovaries as shown in Figure 3. Box 22452, Riyadh 114592, Saudi Arabia, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, P.O. Proliferative Marker. This study showed a correlation between AMH level reduction and FSH level increment, which reflects the failure of the ovarian function as a result of exposure to irradiation. However, concurrent treatment with CAR or thymol increased the weight gained by ovaries as well as their relative ovary weight when compared with the irradiated group (Table 1). has clearly documented the antioxidant, anticlastogenic, and radioprotective potentials of thymol in gamma-irradiated mice [46]. These compounds have antifungal and antibiofilm effects. Some pharmacological measures preserved the radiation-induced ovarian failure through their anti-inflammatory mechanisms such as zingerone [59], curcumin, and capsaicin [60]. Interestingly, pretreatment with CAR or thymol significantly enhanced the follicular development and restored the anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH), E2, and FSH levels.

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